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5G is the fifth Generation of mobile communication networks. It is believed that the speed of 5G will be faster than any technology that the world has seen.

4G operates in the 900Mhz Band

While 5G will opertions can go upto 28Ghz

South Korea is expected to be the first country to roll out 5G network by March 2019

5G in India will be rolled out as a part of Digital India Programme

India is one of the fastest growing smartphone markets in the world.

By 2019, it is expected to have over 90 million smartphones which is around 30.5% of the Global Smartphone Market.

5G Speed:

  • Browsing, Downloading speed will be about 10 to 20 times faster than 4G
  • 3 hour HD film can be downloaded in few seconds
  • Video buffering during streaming session will disappear as data transmission in 5G network delivers data with less than a millisecond of  delay.

How do Mobile phones Work?

  • Mobile Phones use electromagnetic waves that are present everywhere on the Earth.
  • Sun is the main source of Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR)
  • Energy also comes from Stars and Galaxy.
  • We differentiate it on the basis of frequency.
  • Whole range of radio waves in particular frequencies is called Spectrum
  • Mobile phones use 2 types of technology
    • GSM – Global System for Mobile communications
    • CDMA- Code Division Multiple Access.

Most of the nations reserve a large part of radio spectrum for their military needs, the rest is given for civilian use.


  1. On July 31, 1995 – Former Chief Minister of West Bengal Jyoti Basu makes the first voice call to former communications Minister Sukh Ram at that time mobile was dependent on 1G Technology.
    1. Initially only 8 mobile operators were given license in India, among them 2 operators each for Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata and Mumbai.
  2. In 1994 – the first auction for Spectrum was held with the country being divided into 23 Telecom circles.
    1. The Department of Telecommunication fixed eligibility criteria for the bidders.The criteria included financial resources, reliability, investment research, rate of network rollout, pricing, quality, competitiveness.
  3. In 1995 – 19 Telecom circles auctioned and allocated, at this point all the potential bidders need to have a foreign partner.
  4. In 1997 State owned MTNL was allocated 4.4MHz out of 900 MHz band of spectrum to commence GSM services
  5. In 1999 – the New Telecom Policy was announced which made Revenue Sharing Model as the basis of spectrum allocation.
  6. In 2000 BSNL was awarded Spectrum
  7. In 2001 Spectrum in 1800 MHz band was auctioned in a 3 stage process.
  8. In 2002 New Allocation rules based on Subscriber linked criteria was introduced.
  9. In 2007-08 Telecommunication Department raises fees for additional Spectrum allocation up to 6 times per circle.
    1. It’s basis of allocation was “First Come, first Serve”
  10. In 2010 Auction for 3G,4G spectrum were held on the basis of highest bid
  11. In 2012 – Department of Telecommunication auctioned 2G spectrum in both GSM & CDMA bands
  12. 2G auctions were held in 2013, 2014 , 2015 and 2016

The Evolution:


It was between 1980 to 1992, where only Analog Voice calls are been given. At this point of time even incoming voice calls were also charged.


This started the era of Text messages, Picture messages, Multimedia messages and Voice calls.

It was first started in Finland in 1991 using GSM band


It all started in 2001 in Japan.

This started the use of wireless internet and multimedia support and led to the mushrooming of Smartphones and Mobile Apps


We are currently in the age of 4G.

Potential and current applications include amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing, and 3D television.

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