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Polio National Immunisation Day programme

Polio National Immunisation Day programme

What in news of Polio National Immunisation Day programme :

Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has postponed its Polio National Immunisation Day programme scheduled for February 3 without releasing a new date amid allegations of shortage of vaccines and funds.

About polio in Polio National Immunisation Day programme :

Polio incidence in India

  1. Polio is a highly infectious viral disease, which primarily affects young children.
  2. The virus is transmitted through person-to-person and spreads through the faecal-oral route or through contaminated water or food.
  3. It multiplies in the intestine, from where it can invade the nervous system and can cause paralysis.
  4. The last reported cases of wild polio in India were in West Bengal and Gujarat on 13 January 2011.
  5. On 27 March 2014, the WHO declared India a polio-free country, since no cases of wild polio had been reported for three consecutive years.
  6. The nation-wide polio campaigns are continued along with routine immunisation under initiatives such as Mission Indradhanush.
  7. So far, the government has been administering polio doses to children under five years through the door-to-door Pulse Polio campaign, the immunisation programme seeks to eliminate poliomyelitis (polio) in India
  1. Moreover , India  introduced  injectable polio vaccine (IPV) in its universal immunisation programme (UIP) in a phased manner from November.
  1. India was certified polio-free country on 27 March 2014 , Still, Polio remains endemic in three countries – Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan

Initiatives :

About Pulse Polio Immunization (PPI) Program

  • The Pulse Polio Immunization (PPI) Program was initiated in India in 1995 with the aim of eradicating polio completely from the country.
  • The program was launched under the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Global Polio Eradication Initiative.
  • Under this program, every child below five years in age is given two doses of Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), in the month of January and December every year and it needs to be continued till Polio is eradicated completely.
  • It aims to reach unreached children through improved social mobilization, plan mop-up operations in areas where poliovirus has almost disappeared and maintain high level of morale among the public.

. Around 17.4 crore children of less than five years across the country are given polio drops as part of the drive of Government of India to sustain polio eradication from the country.

Global initiatives :

Global Polio Eradication Initiative is a public-private partnership led by national governments with five partners – the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotary International, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Its goal is to eradicate polio worldwide.

About vaccination  in Polio National Immunisation Day programme : 

1)Oral poliovirus vaccine

Oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) are the predominant vaccine used in the fight to eradicate polio.  The attenuated poliovirus(es) contained in OPV are able to replicate effectively in the intestine, but around 10,000 times less able to enter the central nervous system than the wild virus. This enables individuals to mount an immune response against the virus. Virtually all countries which have eradicated polio used OPV to interrupt person to person transmission of the virus

2)Trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV)

Prior to April 2016, the trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) was the predominant vaccine used for routine immunization against poliovirus. 

It contains only attenuated virus of types 1 and 3. This is because continued use of tOPV threatened to continue seeding new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV2), despite the wild type 2 virus being eradicated in 1999.

3)Monovalent oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV)

 Monovalent OPVs (mOPVs)  developed in the early 1950s, but largely dropped out of use later. In addition to , Monovalent OPVs for type 1 (mOPV1) and type 3 (mOPV3) poliovirus licensed again in 2005. 

4)Bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV)

Following April 2016, the trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine replaced with the bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV).About them are

  • Moreover, Bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) consists of live, attenuated (weakened) poliovirus strains of type 1 and type 3.
  • Meanwhile, It simultaneously targets the two remaining types of wild poliovirus (type 1 and type 3) and was developed to improve the efficiency and impact of vaccination campaigns in areas where both types of poliovirus co-circulate.
  • Bivalent oral polio vaccine offers the same advantages as OPV. In addition:
  • While, For both types 1 and 3 polio, bOPV is more effective than OPV and almost as good as the monovalent vaccines, yet in a package that delivers both at once.
  • bOPV allows countries to simplify vaccine logistics and optimize protection.
  • In areas where access to children is limited, using bOPV helps maximise the impact of each contact with a child.
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